The HSV color model is characterized by having many similarities with human color perception, unlike other additive models such as RGB. The HSV acronym refers to hue (H), saturation (S) and value (V), also named as brightness.
It is usually defined as a non-linear transformation of the RGB model, and is the favorite of many developers and video producers if we take into account the hue and saturation, although it does not take into account the perceptual differences that the human eye has when interpreting colors. Let’s see how the three variables work:
- Hue has values between 0º and 360º, since it operates as an angle within the chromatic circle: 0º for red, 120º for green and 240º for blue.
- Saturation is represented by percentages, so its value fluctuates between 0% and 100% (the lower it is, the more it becomes a neutral gray).
- Value is also represented in percentages between 0 and 100%, where white is the lowest possible and pure color is 100%.
To obtain a pure color, we need saturation and brightness to reach 100%. Black is obtained with 0% saturation and brightness, while white needs 0% saturation but 100% brightness.